3M54 Kalibr/Club (SS-N-27)


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The 3M54 Kalibr/Klub (SS-N-27 “Sizzler”) is a Russian short-range ship-, and submarine-launched anti-ship missile. The Sizzler is part of the Kalibr family of missiles and has several export versions known as the ‘Klub’ missile series.

Kalibr/Club (SS-N-27 “Sizzler”) at a Glance

Originated from
Russia
Possessed by
Russia, Algeria, China, India, Iran, Vietnam
Alternate names
SS-N-27, SS-N-27A, SS-N-27B, Sizzler, 3M54, 3M54M, 3M54E, 3M-54E1, 3M54TE, 3M54TE1, 3M54AE, 3M54AE1
Class
Anti-ship cruise missile (ASCM)
Basing
Submarine/ship-launched
Length
8.22 m for 3M54 (6.2 m for 3M54M1)
Diameter
0.534-0.645 m
Launch weight
1,920 kg for 3M54 (1,570 kg for 3M54M1)
Payload
Single conventional warhead
Warhead
1,920 kg for 3M54 (1,570 kg for 3M54M1)
Propulsion
Solid propellant, turbojet (3M54 is three stage, 3M54M1 is two stage)
Range
220 km (3M54), 300 km (3M54M1)
Status
Operational
In service
1987

SS-N-27 Development

Along with the rest of the Klub and Kalibr family of missiles, this anti-ship cruise missile began development in 1985 by Novator Experimental Design Bureau and was made available for export in 1997. NATO designated it the SS-N-27 “Sizzler” by NATO after it was first displayed in 1993. It has since been established that the SS-N-27A refers to the 3M54 version of the missile (three-stage propulsion) and that the SS-N-27B refers to the 3M54M1 version (two-stage propulsion).1

The Sizzler’s family of export variants is known as the “Klub” series. These include the submarine-launched Klub-S, which consists of the anti-ship 3M54E and 3M54E1 missiles. The Klub-N variants are surface ship-launched anti-ship missiles and include the 3M-54TE and the 3M54TE1. The Klub-A variant is air-launched and includes the anti-ship 3M54AE and the 3M54AE1.2

SS-N-27 Specifications

3M54 (SS-N-27A)
The 3M54 (SS-N-27A) anti-ship missile is equipped with a three-stage solid propellant turbojet engine and is 8.22 m long, 0.534 m in diameter, and has a launch weight of 1,930 kg. The minimum range of the 3M54 is 20 km with an estimated maximum range is 300 km.3

3M54M1 (SS-N-27B)
The 3M54M1 (SS-N-27B), although similar to the 3M54, has a two-stage solid propellant turbojet engine and is significantly shorter at 6.2 m, and lighter at 1,570 kg, with a diameter of 0.534 m. The 3M54M1 is equipped with a heavier 450 kg HE warhead and has an increased range of up to 300 km.4A vertical launch version of the missile, the 3M54TM1, is 6.92 m long, 0.645 m in diameter, and weighs 1,780 kg. Also equipped with a 450 kg HE warhead, turbojet engine, inertial navigation system, and GPS, the 3M54TM1 has a maximum range of 275 km.5

Klub Variants
Within the Klub-S export family, the 3M-54E is 8.2 m, has a range of 220 km and is equipped with a 200 kg warhead. The 3M54E1 is 6.2 m, has a range of 300 km and is equipped with a 400 kg warhead.6

The Klub-N variant includes the 3M54TE, which is 8.9 m long, is equipped with a 200 kg warhead and a range of 220 km. The 3M54TE1 is 8.9 m long, has a 400 kg warhead and a range of 300 km.7

The Klub-A variant includes the 3M54AE, which is equipped with a 200 kg warhead and has a range of 300 km. The Klub-A version is similar to the 3M54M1 and 3M54 but do not have the first stage solid-propellant boost motor. The air-launched missiles are fitted inside lightweight canisters for air-carriage and have a diameter of 0.578 m. Combined with their canisters, the Klub-A air launched variants weigh 1,400 kg and have a length of 6.2 m.8

SS-N-27 Service History

Russia reportedly test-fired the missiles in 2004 and they have since been deployed with the Russian Navy on the Bunyan-M corvette.9 SS-N-27s are reportedly also deployed on Grigorovich class frigates, as well as Yasen, Schula-B, and Lada class submarines. Klub-S variant missiles are reportedly arming the Borey Class SSBN.10

After Russia sold an undisclosed number of Sizzler anti-ship missiles to India in 1999, it was reported that the Sindhughosh-class submarine was fitted with a 3M54E missile system. India has since fit 3M54E missiles on three Russian-built Talwar-class frigates (eight missiles per ship).11

Reports claim that several unconfirmed issues presented during a 2007 test of the 3M54M1E, but that subsequent tests in 2008 were successful.12

A 2005 report claimed that eight Chinese Kilo-class submarines would be fitted with 3M54 Klub-S (submarine) missiles before 2008.13

In July 2008, an estimated nine 3M54 missiles were test-launched from Indian Sindhughosh-class submarines. Although unconfirmed, reports suggest that China has also tested the missile.14

In March 2016, it was announced that Russian Project 971 will upgrade the ‘Akula’-class nuclear powered attack submarines and arm them with 3M54 missiles.15

Footnotes

    1. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 174.
    2. “3M-54/Caliber SS-N-27 Sizzler”, 2016, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/club.htm.
    3. Jane’s Strategic, 174.
    4. Office of Naval Intelligence, “The Russian Navy: A Historic Transition”, December 2015, https://news.usni.org/2015/12/18/document-office-of-naval-intelligence-report-on-russian-navy.
    5. Jane’s Strategic, 174.
    6. Office of Naval Intelligence, “The Russian Navy: A Historic Transition”, December 2015, https://news.usni.org/2015/12/18/document-office-of-naval-intelligence-report-on-russian-navy.
    7. Jane’s Strategic, 174.
    8. Ibid.
    9. “3M-54/Caliber SS-N-27 Sizzler”, 2016, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/club.htm.
    10. Commodore Stephen Saunders RN, IHS Jane’s Fighting Ships: 2016-2017, (United Kingdom: IHS), pp. 677-707.
    11. Jane’s Strategic, 174.
    12. Ibid.
    13. Ibid.
    14. Ibid.
    15. Nikolai Novichkov and Peter Felstead, “Russian Project 971 Submarines to be Armed with Kalibr Missiles”, IHS Jane’s Defense Weekly, 24 Marc 2016, http://www.janes.com/article/59030/russian-project-971-submarines-to-be-armed-with-kalibr-missiles/
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Missile Defense Project, "3M54 Kalibr/Club (SS-N-27)," Missile Threat, Center for Strategic and International Studies, January 9, 2017, last modified August 2, 2021, https://missilethreat.csis.org/missile/ss-n-27-sizzler/.