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The JL-2 (Ju Lang-2, CSS-NX-14) is a Chinese intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile. China likely developed the SLBM jointly with the DF-31 land-based ICBM beginning in 1970. As of 2016, China deploys four Jin-class nuclear ballistic missile submarines each armed with 12 Ju Lang-2 SLBMs. Chinese plans call for the production of a total of 12 Jin-class submarines.1 These systems have replaced the JL-1 (CSS-N-3) missiles aboard the Xia-class Type 092 submarine, which is no longer in service.

JL-2 at a Glance

Originated from
Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM)
Possessed by
Jin-Class Nuclear Ballistic Missile Submarine
13 m
2 m
Launch Weight
42,000 kg
1,050-2,800 kg
Nuclear, 1 MT, or 3-8 MIRV with 20/90/150 kT warheads
Three-stage solid propellant
8,000 – 9,000 km
In Service


The SLBM has a minimum range of 2,000 km, a maximum range greater than 8,000 km, and carries a payload of 1,050 to 2,800 kg. Analysts believe the missiles currently carry a single 1-megaton yield nuclear warhead, but may also be capable of delivering 3-8 lower yield MIRVed warheads.2

The missile may be equipped with penetration aids and decoys to complicate missile defenses. The missile uses an inertial guidance system with stellar updates and a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system. It may also employ the Bei Dou navigational satellite system. These missiles will likely have an accuracy of 150 or 300 m CEP.3 The Ju Lang-2 underwent testing in 1983, but underwent a major redesign in 1985 to reflect advancements in Chinese warhead miniaturization technology.4

Service History

China first installed the Ju Lang-2 on the Golf-class Type 031 submarine for testing and its first test launch took place in 2002, with subsequent launches reported in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2012, and 2015. The missile likely entered service in 2015. As of 2019, the PLA Navy has 48 JL-2 launchers across four submarines, with an additional two submarines under construction.5


    1. Department of Defense, “Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2016,” April 2016, http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2016%20China%20Military%20Power%20Report.pdf
    2. “JL-2 (CSS-NX-14),” Global Security, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/china/jl-2.htm.
    3. “JL-2,” in IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, ed. James C. O’Halloran (United Kingdom: IHS, 2015), 25-26.
    4. Ibid.
    5. Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, “Chinese Nuclear Forces, 2019,” Bulletin of American Scientists, Vol. 75, Issue 4, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1080/00963402.2019.1628511.
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Missile Defense Project, "JL-2," Missile Threat, Center for Strategic and International Studies, August 12, 2016, last modified April 23, 2024, https://missilethreat.csis.org/missile/jl-2/.