In an agreement signed on September 14, 2016, the United States pledged to provide Israel with $38 billion in military assistance over the next decade. This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), which replaces one expiring in FY2018, is the largest single pledge of military assistance in U.S. history. The agreement allocates $5 billion over the 10-year span for missile defense assistance, further deepening U.S.-Israeli missile defense ties. The $500 million annual missile defense allocation does come with the provision that Israel cannot lobby Congress for additional funds outside of wartime. Furthermore, this MOU phases out stipulations in previous agreements that allow Israel to spend portions of its aid package within its domestic defense industry.