APACHE AP/ SCALP EG/ Storm Shadow/ SCALP Naval/ Black Shaheen

APACHE AP and its variants are a series of French-made air-launched cruise missiles. Variants of the missile have been customized and sold to the United Kingdom, Italy, Greece, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. France has also developed and deployed a sea-launched version for use on its naval ship and submarines.

APACHE AP at a Glance

Originated From: France
Possessed By: France, United Kingdom, Italy, Greece, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Alternate Name: APACHE AP, SCALP EG, Storm Shadow, SCALP Naval, Black Shaheen
Class: Short Range Cruise Missile
Basing: air-, ship-, sub-launched
Length: 5.1 m (5.5 m for SCALP Naval)
Diameter: 630 mm
Launch Weight: 1,300 kg (1,230 kg for APACHE AP)
Warhead: 1 X 400 kg HE penetration
Propulsion: turbojet
Range: 140- 400 km
Status: Operational
In Service: 2004

Variant  APACHE AP  SCALP EG/Storm Shadow  Black Shaheen  SCALP Naval
Range  140 km  400 km  290 km  1,000 km (Sub-launched, 1,400  km (ship-launched)
Platform  Air-launched  Air-Launched  Air-Launched  Ship/Sub-launched
Warhead  560 kg HE submunitions  1X400 kg HE penetration  <500 kg  Multipurpose 300 kg HE
Diameter  630 mm  630 mm  630 mm  500 mm
Launch Weight  1,230 kg  1,300 kg  1,300 kg  1,400 kg
Countries Possessing Missile  France  France, Greece, Italy, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom     UAE  France

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APACHE AP Development

The APACHE AP is the result of a collaboration between Germany and France in 1983 known as The Arme Propulsée À CHarges Éjectables (APACHE) project. After Germany withdrew from the project in 1988, development of the program was then taken on entirely by MBDA 1 The original APACHE missile, known as the APACHE AP is equipped with 10 KRISS anti-runway submunitions and has a rage of 140 km. 2 In 1995, BAE (now MBDA) then modified the SCALP EG missile in a bid for the United Kingdom (UK) Ministry of Defense Cruise Missile program, altering the design and naming the missile Storm Shadow. The Storm Shadow is a short range, air-, ship-, or sub- launched missile designed to accurately target high-value fixed assets in extreme conditions. 3

After 1996, MBDA announced that the Storm Shadow and SCALP EG would become virtually identical in all ways but their software and aircraft interface components. In that same year, a modification of the Storm Shadow/SCALP EG called the Black Shaheen was developed for the UAE. Alterations to the missile included a decreased range of 290 km and a 500 kg payload to meet Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) restrictions, although some states, such as the U.S., suspect that the range exceeds 300 km 4

In 2002, the French Ministry of Defense contracted MBDA to develop a variant of the SCALP EG capable of being sub- and ship-launched, which was then under-water tested in 2010. 5
The French Air Force chose the SCALP EG variant of the missile with HE and penetrating warheads to be equipped on their Mirage 2000D and Rafale aircraft. The SCALP EG and Storm Shadow can also be operated by the Tornado and Eurofighter Typhoon. 6
In 1997, the UK contracted MBDA to build long range Storm Shadow missiles that would become the RAF’s Conventionally Armed Stand-Off Missile (CASOM). 7

In 1999, Italy and the UAE purchased Storm Shadow missiles to arm the Italians’ IDS Tornado and the UAE’s Mirage Fleet. In 2000, Greece awarded a contract to MBDA Systems for Storm Shadows for their Mirage fighters, placing an order for additional missiles in 2003. 8

APACHE AP Specifications

The APACHE AP is a short-range air-launched cruise missile, and is 5.1 m long and 630 mm wide. The missile has a launch weight of 1,230 kg and a range of 140 km. 9 Designed as an anti-runway missile, the APACHE AP is equipped with 560 kg of high explosive KRISS submunitions and is powered by a Microturbo TRI-60-30 engine. 10 The APACHE AP is guided by an inertial navigation system and an active radar. Although the missile cruises at an altitude of 150 m, it drops to 50 m during the terminal phase in order to evade enemy defense systems. 11

SCALP EG/ Storm Shadow Specifications

The SCALP EG and Storm Shadow missiles are virtually identical in all aspects except that they are equipped with different aircraft interface components and software. The missiles are 5.1 m in length, have a 630 mm body diameter, weigh 1,300 kg, and have a range between 250-400 km. 12. The SCALP EG/Storm Shadow is equipped with a Microturbo TRI-60-30 engine and a 400 kg payload. 13 The missiles are intended to have a shelf life of 12 years when they are fully fueled and stored with within sealed canisters. 14

The SCALP EG/Storm Shadow is guided by a triple navigation system, using inertial navigation, GPS, and Terrain Reference Navigation. 15 These advanced navigation systems, combined with an imaging infrared seeker and automatic target recognition algorithms, allow the missile to effectively hit the targeted impact point in severe conditions.
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SCALP Naval Specifications

SCALP Naval is 5.5 m long with a body diameter of 0.5 m and a launch weight of 1,400 kg. 16 Equipped with a Microturbo TR-50 turbojet engine and a new multipurpose 300 kg HE missile, the SCALP Naval is guided with an inertial navigation system and GPS midcourse guidance. The missile can be launched from French ship-based Sylver A70 vertical launch systems, offering a range of 1,400 km, or from standard 533 mm torpedo tubes when submarine-launched, with the potential range of 1,000 km 17

Black Shaheen Specifications

The Black Shaheen is a version of the SCALP EG/Storm Shadow developed by France for export to the United Arab Emirates, to equip its Mirage 2000 fighter aircraft. 18 Modifications to the Black Shaheen, made in compliance with Missile Technology Control Regimes guidelines, allegedly include a decreased range of 290 km and a payload of under 500 kg. 19

Service History

The first test flights of the APACHE AP took place in 1995 and the missile entered service in 2003. In 1997, France ordered 120 of the APACHE AP missiles and 500 of the SCALP EG version. SCALP EG test flights began in 2000 in Cazaux, France, and became operational in 2004. 20
The UK is believed to have ordered 900 Storm Shadow missiles in 1997, with the first test flights taking place in 2003 in the U.S. 27 Storm Shadow Missiles were fired in Iraq between March and April, 2003. 21
There are no records of SCALP Naval test flights, although they were scheduled to have been conducted in 2010/2011. In 1999, Italy purchased 200 SCALP EG/Storm Shadow missiles, four of which were test fired in 2006 by Italy in South Africa. Greece also order 56 of this version in 2000 and were believed to have received this delivery in 2004. 22 Although reports claiming a 2006 Saudi Arabian purchase of 200 SCALP EG/Storm Shadow missiles remains unconfirmed, subsequent reports do confirm the missiles’ initial test flights in 2011. 23

In 1997, the UAE order 600 Black Shaheen missiles, which were believed to be delivered in 2003 and operational by 2007.

Altogether, it is believed that over 2,200 APACHE AP, SCALP EG/Storm Shadows, and Black Shaheen missiles have been ordered and at least 1,200 missiles have been delivered by 2006. In 2011, French, Italian, and UK forces fired SCALP EG/Storm Shadow missiles at targets in Libya. 24. It is believed that France has fired 15 of these missiles and the UK has fired 60, but the number of missiles Italy has fired remains unknown. 25

Sources

  1. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 140.
  2. GlobalSecurity.org, “Apache”, 2016, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/apache.htm.”
    After dismissing several proposals for potential variants, the French Air Force chose to pursue the Systeme de Croisiere conventionale Autonome a Longue Portee (SCALP EG) version, which was modified from the APACHE to fire HE or penetrating warheads. [3. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 140.
  3. Air-force Technology, “Storm Shadow/ SCALP Long-Range, Air-Launched, Stand-Off Attack Missile, France”, 2016, http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/storm-shadow-missile/.
  4. Nuclear Threat Initiative, “United Arab Emirates Overview”, April 2015, http://www.nti.org/learn/countries/united-arab-emirates/.
  5. MBDA Missile Systems, “Successful First Firing of MBDA’s SCALP Naval Missile”, June 15 2010, http://www.mbda-systems.com/press-releases/successful-first-firing-of-mbdas-scalp-naval-missile/.
  6. MBDA Missile Systems, “Storm Shadow/SCALP”, 2016, http://www.mbda-systems.com/air-dominance/storm-shadow-scalp/.
  7. Air-force Technology, “Storm Shadow/ SCALP Long-Range, Air-Launched, Stand-Off Attack Missile, France”, 2016, http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/storm-shadow-missile/.
  8. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 140.
  9. Global Security, “Apache”, 2016, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/apache.htm.
  10. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 140.
  11. Ibid, 141.
  12. MBDA Missile Systems, “Storm Shadow/SCALP”, 2016, http://www.mbda-systems.com/air-dominance/storm-shadow-scalp/
  13. Global Security, “Apache”, 2016, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/apache.htm.
  14. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 141.
  15. MBDA Missile Systems, “Storm Shadow/SCALP”, 2016, http://www.mbda-systems.com/air-dominance/storm-shadow-scalp/.
  16. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 142.
  17. Ibid, 142.
  18. IHS Jane’s 360, “Falcon flourishes in the desert” 23 February 2015, http://www.janes.com/article/49208/falcon-flourishes-in-the-desert-idx15d1.
  19. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 140.
  20. Ibid, 142.
  21. Ibid, 142.
  22. Airforce-Technology.com, “Storm Shadow/SCALP Long-Range, Air-Launched, Stand-Off Attack Missile, France”, 2016, http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/storm-shadow-missile/.
  23. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 142.
  24. UK Defense Journal, “The Storm Shadow Cruise Missile”, October 20 2015, https://ukdefencejournal.org.uk/the-storm-shadow-cruise-missile/
  25. James O’Halloran, IHS Jane’s Weapons: Strategic 2015-2016, 2015, (United Kingdom: IHS), 142.
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