The Pantsir S-1, NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound, is a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun and missile (SPAAGM) system designed by Russia.
Pantsir at a Glance
Originated from: Russia
Possessed by: Algeria, Brazil, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Oman, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, Syria, UAE, Vietnam
Alternate Names: Pantsyr, SA-22 Greyhound
Class: Surface-to-Air (SAM)
Basing: Mobile, ground-based
Warhead: 20 kg high-explosive fragmentation
Range: 20 km
In service: 2003-Present
Pantsir Service History
Designed to replace the SA-19 “Grison” air defenses, the Pantsir combines an anti-air gun and surface-to-air missile platform.1
Development on the Pantsir began in 1989 at KBP Instrument Design Bureau. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, requirements for the system changed. Instead of providing defense for airfields, missile silos, command centers, and communication arrays, the system was redefined as a tactical air defense system that could provide air defense for Russian ground forces and longer range air defense systems such as the S-300, S-400, and S-500.2 Development of the system was completed and it entered production in 2003.
Although each Pantsir launch vehicle is capable of functioning independently, they typically operate in batteries of between two and ten launcher vehicles and are occasionally accompanied by a separate command and control vehicle.
Since 2013, Russia has deployed Pantsirs to Syria in support of its soldiers and Syrian governmental forces during the civil war.3
The Pantsir has also played a role in the Russian/Ukrainian conflict. Notably, pieces from a Pantsir 57E6 missile were found in Ukraine in November 2014, and in December, it was confirmed that Russia had deployed the air defense system to the Russia-Ukraine border region.4 In February 2015, reports and footage of Pantsirs being used by pro-Russian forces in Ukraine’s Donetsk region surfaced.5
The system was also deployed in the Luhansk region in eastern Ukraine.6
The Pantsir is equipped with twelve 57E6 or 9M335 missiles in addition to the two 30mm 2A38M automatic anti-air cannons it carries and can engage up to four targets simultaneously.
Both missiles types use two-stage designs that are 3.2 m long. Additionally, they both use 20 kg high-explosive fragmentation warheads with impact/proximity fuses, and can hit targets in a 1.2 to 20 km range.7 The primary difference between the two missiles lays in the type of fragmentation device used in the warhead. The 9M335 uses a rod fragmentation device while the 57E6 uses a standard blast fragmentation charge.8