Adapting NATO Missile Defense to Survive Enemy Contact

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Tensions with Iran are once again high, making plain the risk of unexpected conflict between Iran and the United States. In the event of such a conflict, the United States would likely rely heavily on regional missile defense architectures like the European Phased Adaptive Approach, or EPAA, designed to protect NATO from ballistic missile attacks from the Middle East. Yet the EPAA is fragile, with a single point of failure that a sensible adversary like Iran could exploit. Fortunately, there are practical steps that NATO and the United States can take to make EPAA more durable.

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Ian Williams, "Adapting NATO Missile Defense to Survive Enemy Contact," Missile Threat, Center for Strategic and International Studies, August 2, 2019, last modified April 27, 2021,