Russia Launching New Missile Warning Satellites


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On December 18, Russian General Staff Chief Valery Gerasimov confirmed that Russia is modernizing its orbital missile early warning system. The new satellites, designated Kupol, began replacing Russia’s Oko-1 satellites in 2015. As of 2019, the Kremlin has launched three Kupol satellites into orbit. The Oko-1 constellation comprised eight satellites; Russia plans to launch nine Kupol units in total by 2022.

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Masao Dahlgren, "Russia Launching New Missile Warning Satellites," Missile Threat, Center for Strategic and International Studies, December 18, 2019, last modified December 18, 2019, https://missilethreat.csis.org/russia-replaces-missile-early-warning-satellites/.