Russia Launching New Missile Warning Satellites

On December 18, Russian General Staff Chief Valery Gerasimov confirmed that Russia is modernizing its orbital missile early warning system. The new satellites, designated Kupol, began replacing Russia’s Oko-1 satellites in 2015. As of 2019, the Kremlin has launched three Kupol satellites into orbit. The Oko-1 constellation comprised eight satellites; Russia plans to launch nine Kupol units in total by 2022.