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The Fateh-110 is a short-range, road-mobile, solid-propellant ballistic missile. It is most likely a modified version of the unguided Zelzal-2, with the addition of control and guidance systems.1 While the program is based in Iran, the missile is believed to incorporate components from Chinese contractors. In 2006, the US Department of Treasury accused Chinese firm Great Wall Industry and its partners of playing a lead role in the development of the Fateh missile system.2 Iran has launched several Fateh missiles, as well as longer-range variants like the Zolfaghar, in military operations since 2017.

Fateh-110 at a Glance

Originated from
Possessed by
Short-range Ballistic Missile (SRBM)
8.86 m
0.61 m
Launch weight
3,450 kg
500 kg
HE, chemical, submunitions
Single-stage solid propellant
200 – 300 km, 300 – 500 km (Fateh-e Mobin)
In service
2004 – present

Fateh-110 Development

Iran began developing the Fateh-110 in 1995. The missile is 8.86 m long, 0.61 m in diameter, and weighs 3,450 kg. It uses a single-stage solid propellant engine and has a range of 210 km (130 miles), although it is possible that Iran could add extra boosters in order to increase its range to 400 km (249 miles). It can carry a payload of some 500 kg and is most likely intended to deliver a high explosive, chemical, or submunitions warhead. The missile is also assumed to be nuclear / WMD capable.3

The first test flight of the Fateh-110 took place in May 2001, with a second in September 2002.4 A third test was recorded in February 2003. A fourth test was successfully completed during the second “Noble Prophet” military exercise in November 2006. The Iranian Revolutionary Guard successfully tested the Fateh in January 2007 during an annual war game.5 A fifth successful test was completed in September 2007 alongside the Qadr-1 and the Shahab-3.

Additionally, unconfirmed reports suggest that at least five more tests occurred between 2008 and 2012.6 During its tests, the Fateh A-110 was fired from a fixed launcher similar to the one used by the Russian S-75 Guideline surface-to-air missile. The launch vehicles are probably converted Scud launchers, trucks, or Zelzal-2 launch vehicles.7 The missile entered low-rate production in October 2002 and is believed to have reached initial operating capability in 2004.

Fateh-110 Variants

Iran has also developed two improved versions of the Fateh designated the A-110A (or Fateh 2) and the A-110B (or Fateh 3). A 2008 report suggested that Syria was building a surface-to-surface missile with Iranian assistance.8 This cooperative project, often referred to as the M-600 is believed to be based upon the Fateh A-110B and have an operational range of at least 300 km. The Assad regime likely launched Fateh-110 missiles at opposition groups in the country in December 2012, prompting NATO to deploy Patriot batteries to Turkey.9 It is expected that the A-110B will have a slightly reduced payload of 480 kg and an accuracy of 250 m CEP.10 A fourth-generation Fateh-110-D1 was unveiled in August 2012 and was said to have an improved guidance system but the same range as the previous 300 km version.11 In 2018, Iran displayed the Fateh-e Mobin missile, which it claims has a range between 300-500 km.12

Iran and Syria have also transferred Fateh variants to the Lebanese group Hezbollah. Iranian and Lebanaese sources confirmed these transfers in 2014, though some reports suggest transfers as early as 2007.13 In 2010, Israeli officials also alleged that Syria had transferred M-600 variants of the Fateh to Hezbollah.14 Iran has separately transferred Fateh-110 missiles to proxy groups in Iraq in 2018.15

Fateh-110 Anti-Ship Variants

In 2014, the IRGC displayed two variants of the Fateh missile it called the Hormuz-1 and Hormuz-2. The Hormuz-1 is claimed to have anti-radiation capabilities for attacking radar systems, and in 2014, Iranian television broadcast images of commanders watching an attack on a target with radar antennae. The original claim was that Hormuz-2 was an anti-ship variant, but images of the missile suggested it had a similar radio frequency-transparent radome and not a window for an electro-optical infrared seeker, suggesting it is essentially the same as the Hormuz-1. 16

Another anti-ship variant of the Fateh is the Khalij Fars, which does have the electro-optical seeker required to improve accuracy enough to potentially hit a moving target. Tehran claims that early version Khalij Fars entered service in 2008, but was not officially delivered to the Iranian military until a ceremony in March 2014.17 This ceremony featured Fateh missiles painted blue to suggest an antiship variant, but Iran put caps on the noses of the missile preventing verification of the EO/IR seekers. 18 The Department of Defense did assess in the unclassified version of its 2014 report on the military power of Iran that it does possess an antiship ballistic missile capability.19

Operational History

Iran has used the Fateh family of missiles in multiple military operations since 2017. Two of these operations likely included use of some variant of the Fateh-110. In 2018, Iran launched seven missiles at targets in Koya, Iraq, focusing on the headquarters of two Iranian Kurdish parties.20 According to an IRGC statement, Iranian drones supported the attack and provided targeting information.

Tehran also likely used Fateh missiles in its attack on Erbil Air Base in northern Iraq as part of its retaliation for the killing of Quds Force Commander Qasem Soleimani. Iranian sources shortly after the attack speculated that Fateh missiles were involved. The missile launch locations and targets show similarity to the attacks in Koya, suggesting that the Fateh missiles were involved.21


    1. Andrew Koch, Robin Hughes, and Alon Ben-David, “Tehran Altering Ballistic Missile,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8 December 2004.
    2. United States Department of Treasury, “Treasury Designates U.S. and Chinese Companies Supporting Iranian Missile Proliferation,” press release, June 13, 2006, https://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/js4317.aspx.
    3. Lennox, Duncan. “Fateh-110.” Jane’s Strategic Weapon Systems (Offensive Weapons). August 29, 2012.
    4. Andrew Koch and Steve Rodan, “Iran Tests Latest Ballistic Missiles,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 18 September 2002.
    5. Iran: Guards Army Units test-fire Short-range missiles, rockets,” BBC Monitoring Middle East- Political, 23 January 2007, www.bbc.co.uk, Accessed on 6 June 2008.
    6. Duncan Lennox, “Short-Range Iranian Ballistic Missile on View,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 5 February 2003.
    7. Duncan Lennox, “Short-Range Iranian Ballistic Missile on View,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 5 February 2003.
    8. Lennox, “Fateh A-110.”
    9. Barbara Starr, “U.S. officials: Syria using more accurate, Iranian-made missiles,” CNN, 28 December 2012, on http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/28/world/meast/syria-missiles, accessed on 4 February 2016.
    10. Lennox, “Fateh 110.”
    11. Jeremy Binnie, “Iran unveils extended range Fateh ballistic missile,” IHS Jane’s 360, August 25, 2015, on http://www.janes.com/article/53816/iran-unveils-extended-range-fateh-ballistic-missile
    12. Daniel Cebul, “Iran Unveils ‘Bright Conqueror’ Missile,” Defense News, August 13, 2018, https://www.defensenews.com/global/mideast-africa/2018/08/13/iran-unveils-bright-conqueror-missile/.
    13. Shaan Shaikh and Ian Williams, “Hezbollah Missiles and Rockets,” CSIS Briefs, July 2018, https://csis-website-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/180705_Williams_HezbollahMissiles_v3.pdf.
    14. Jonathan Lis and Amos Harel, “Syria Gave Advanced M-600 Missiles to Hezbollah, Defense Officials Claim,” Haaretz, May 5, 2010, https://www.
    15. John Irish and Ahmed Rasheed, “Exclusive: Iran Moves Missiles to Iraq in Warning to Enemies,” Reuters, August 31, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-iraq-missiles-exclusive/exclusive-iran-moves-missiles-to-iraq-in-warning-to-enemies-idUSKCN1LG0WB.
    16. Anthony Cordesman, “Iran’s Rocket and Missile Forces and Strategic Options,” Report of the Center for Strategic and International Studies Burke Chair in Strategy. December 2014, http://csis.org/files/publication/141218_Cordesman_IranRocketMissileForces_Web.pdf
    17. Ibid.
    18. Jeremy Binnie, “Iran rolls out ballistic missiles,” IHS Jane’s 360, 6 March 2014, on http://www.janes.com/article/35187/iran-rolls-out-ballistic-missiles
    19. Department of Defense, “Annual Report on Military Power of Iran,” Executive Summary, January 2014, http://freebeacon.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Iranmilitary.pdf
    20. Missile Defense Project, “IRGC Attacks Kurdish Opposition in Iraq,” MissileThreat, updated September 19, 2018, https://missilethreat.csis.org/igrc-attacks-kurdish-opposition-in-iraq/.
    21. CSIS Missile Defense Project, “Iranian Missile Attacks: 2017-2020,” http://missilethreat.csis.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Iran-MIssile-Attacks2.jpg
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Missile Defense Project, "Fateh-110," Missile Threat, Center for Strategic and International Studies, August 9, 2016, last modified October 16, 2023, https://missilethreat.csis.org/missile/fateh-110/.